世界文化遗产明清故宫英文介绍

世界文化遗产明清故宫(北京故宫、沈阳故宫),北京故宫于1987年列入世界文化遗产。

Imperial
Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang

明清故宫(北京故宫、沈阳故宫)

Seat of supreme power for over five centuries (1416-1911), the
Forbidden City in Beijing, with its landscaped gardens and many buildings
(whose nearly 10,000 rooms contain furniture and works of art), constitutes a
priceless testimony to Chinese civilization during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
The Imperial Palace of the Qing Dynasty in Shenyang consists of 114 buildings
constructed between 1625–26 and 1783. It contains an important library and
testifies to the foundation of the last dynasty that ruled China, before it
expanded its power to the centre of the country and moved the capital to
Beijing. This palace then became auxiliary to the Imperial Palace in Beijing.
This remarkable architectural edifice offers important historical testimony to
the history of the Qing Dynasty and to the cultural traditions of the Manchu
and other tribes in the north of China.

北京故宫于1987年被列入《世界遗产名录》,沈阳故宫作为其扩展项目也被列入其中,目前称为明清故宫(北京故宫和沈阳故宫)。北京故宫作为五个世纪(1416-1911)最高皇权的皇宫, 包含近一万间房间及其家具陈设与工艺,众多殿宇及花园景观, 是明清两朝中华文明的无价见证。沈阳清朝故宫建于1625-1626年至1783年间,共有114座建筑,其中包括一个极为珍贵的藏书馆。沈阳故宫是统治中国的最后一个朝代在将权力扩大到全国中心、迁都北京之前,朝代建立的见证,后来成为北京故宫的附属皇宫建筑。这座雄伟的建筑为清朝历史以及满族和中国北方其他部族的文化传统提供了重要的历史见证。

Outstanding Universal Value

Brief
synthesis

As the royal residences of the emperors of the Ming and Qing
dynasties from the 15th to 20th century, the Imperial Palaces of the Ming and
Qing dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang were the centre of State power in late
feudal China. The Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing
known as the Forbidden City was constructed between 1406 and 1420 by the Ming
emperor Zhu Di and witnessed the enthronement of 14 Ming and 10 Qing emperors
over the following 505 years. The Imperial Palace of the Qing Dynasty in
Shenyang was built between 1625 and 1637 by Nurgaci for the Nuzhen/Manchu
forebears of the Qing Dynasty, which established itself in Beijing in 1644.
Also known as Houjin Palace or Shenglin Palace, it was then used as the
secondary capital and temporary residence for the royal family until 1911. The
Imperial Palaces of Beijing and Shenyang were inscribed on the World Heritage
List in 1987 and 2004 respectively.

The Forbidden City, located in the centre of Beijing is the supreme
model in the development of ancient Chinese palaces, providing insight into the
social development of late dynastic China, especially the ritual and court
culture. The layout and spatial arrangement inherits and embodies the
traditional characteristic of urban planning and palace construction in ancient
China, featuring a central axis, symmetrical design and layout of outer court
at the front and inner court at the rear and the inclusion of additional
landscaped courtyards deriving from the Yuan city layout. As the exemplar of
ancient architectural hierarchy, construction techniques and architectural art,
it influenced official buildings of the subsequent Qing dynasty over a span of
300 years. The religious buildings, particularly a series of royal Buddhist
chambers within the Palace, absorbing abundant features of ethnic cultures, are
a testimony of the integration and exchange in architecture among the Manchu,
Han, Mongolian and Tibetan since the 14th century. Meanwhile, more than a
million precious royal collections, articles used by the royal family and a
large number of archival materials on ancient engineering techniques, including
written records, drawings and models, are evidence of the court culture and law
and regulations of the Ming and Qing dynasties.

The Imperial Palace of the Qing Dynasty in Shenyang while following
the traditions of palace construction in China retains typical features of
traditional folk residences of the Manchu people, and has integrated the
architectural arts of Han, Manchu and Mongolian ethnic cultures. The buildings
were laid out according to the “eight-banner” system, a distinct social
organization system in Manchu society, an arrangement which is unique among
palace buildings. Within the Qingning Palace the sacrificial places for the
emperors testify to the customs of Shamanism practiced by the Manchu people for
several hundred years.

Criterion
(i):
The Imperial Palaces represent masterpieces in the development of
imperial palace architecture in China.

Criterion
(ii):
The architecture of the Imperial Palace complexes, particularly in
Shenyang, exhibits an important interchange of influences of traditional
architecture and Chinese palace architecture particularly in the 17th and 18th
centuries.

Criterion
(iii):
The Imperial Palaces bear exceptional testimony to Chinese
civilisation at the time of the Ming and Qing dynasties, being true reserves of
landscapes, architecture, furnishings and objects of art, as well as carrying
exceptional evidence of the living traditions and the customs of Shamanism
practised by the Manchu people for centuries.

Criterion
(iv):
The Imperial Palaces provide outstanding examples of the greatest
palatial architectural ensembles in China. They illustrate the grandeur of the
imperial institution from the Qing Dynasty to the earlier Ming and Yuan
dynasties, as well as Manchu traditions, and present evidence on the evolution
of this architecture in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Integrity

Since the collapse of the Qing dynasty, much attention has been
paid to the conservation of the property. The designated property area includes
all elements embodying the values in the creativity, influence, historic
evidence, and architectural exemplar, with the historical scale, architectural
types, and other components, as well as the techniques and artistic
achievements of Chinese palace buildings after the 15th century, particularly
in the 17th to 18th century, well preserved. Various embodiments of the court
culture in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and the features of the lifestyles of and
the exchange and integration between the Manchu and Han peoples have been well
retained. The buffer zone protects the spatial positions of the complexes in
the cities and their settings.

Authenticity

The Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing dynasties in Beijing and
Shenyang, particularly the Forbidden City, genuinely preserve the outstanding
embodiment of Chinese hierarchical culture in the layout, design and decoration
of the building complex. The highest technical and artistic achievements of
Chinese official architecture, conveyed by wooden structures, are preserved in
an authentic way, and traditional craftsmanship is inherited. Various
components of the Palaces bearing witness to the court culture of the Ming and
Qing dynasties are retained, reflecting the lifestyle and values of the royal
family of the times. The Imperial Palace of the Qing Dynasty in Shenyang
genuinely preserves the historical arrangement of Manchu palace buildings, the
style and features of local buildings and information on the exchange between
Manchu and Han nationalities in lifestyle in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Protection and management requirements

The Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties have been well
protected in the past century. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty, the two
palace complexes were declared by the state as the Palace Museums in 1925 and
1926 respectively. In 1961, they were among the first group of the State
Priority Protected Sites designated by the State Council, and were repaired and
protected according to the conservation principles of cultural relics. As a
result, all the main buildings and majority of ancillary buildings have
remained intact. Based on the strict implementation of the Law of the People’s
Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics, the State
Administration of Cultural Heritage issued Regulations Concerning the
Management of the Palace Museum in 1996, and the people’s government of Beijing
Municipality demarcated an area of 1,377 hectares as the buffer zone of the Imperial
Palace in 2005; in 2003, the people’s government of Shenyang City issued the
Regulations on the Protection of the Imperial Palace, Fuling Tomb and Zhaoling
Tomb of Shenyang. All of these laws and regulations have detailed prescription
on the protection of the settings of the Imperial Palaces, providing legal,
institutional and managerial guarantee to the maximal protection of the
authenticity and integrity of the property, and ensuring a better safeguarding
of this outstanding cultural heritage site for all human beings.

In future, integrated protection of the values of the Imperial
Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties will be conducted through implementing
and improving the conservation management plan, adhering to the conservation
principle of minimal intervention, and improving the scientific and
technological measures, so as to ensure the sustainable protection of the
authenticity and integrity of the property. All the regulations concerning the
protection and management of the Imperial Palaces should be strictly
implemented, and the number of tourists, especially in the Forbidden City,
should be effectively controlled, so as to reduce the negative impact on the
property. The protection of the setting should be strengthened, especially that
of the Imperial Palace of the Qing Dynasty in Shenyang. The needs of the
stakeholders should be coordinated to maintain the rational and effective
balance between the protection of the Imperial Palaces and the development of
tourism and urban construction. The research on interpretation and promotion
should be enhanced to better showcase the scientific, historic and artistic
values of the Palaces to tourists from home and abroad and provide spiritual
enlightenment and enjoyment to people, in order to give play to the social and
cultural benefits of the Imperial Palaces in a reasonable way, and promote the
sustainability of the protection of the Imperial Palaces within the context of
the development of the cities.